DC-DC Converter Module. Application Circuit 6


dc-dc-converter-8
This is an excellent DC- DC Converter Module that can adjust the output voltage to any desired value, even fractions from 0 V to 17 V. It is a very good Variable Power supply Module. But pressing the switch we can adjust the output voltage. It can handle a Peak current of 3 Amps. The output voltage and current are displayed in an LCD Screen that has back light. If the input voltage is from a Battery, the LCD display shows the Battery Level also.  Input voltage can be between 5V and 23 V but the best voltage is 20 V. It has 95% conversion efficiency and 1% LCD accuracy. It is available with a transparent casing. You can fix it in the case provided along with the Module.It can be connected to the Bread board so that we can determine the current consumed by the project.  Its cost is just Rs.350.
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IR Sensor Tester. Application Circuit 5


ir-sensor-tester-1Here is a simple tester to test the IR Sensor TSOP 1738. It is a highly sensitive device that damage easily if its input voltage rises above 5V. This Tester can be used to test TSOP 1738 before using in a circuit. It confirms the condition of the Sensor, whether it is functioning properly or not. It can also be used to check the IR Sensors kept in your junk box so that you can keep only the good one for use.

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IR Transmitter Tester. Application Circuit 4


ir-transmitter-circuitWe make Infrared Transmitter circuits to generate Pulsed Infrared rays to use with IR Sensor based receivers. The IR Transmitter circuit based on IC 555 generates IR rays pulsating in the frequency typically at 38KHz. The IR Sensor used in the receiver is TSOP 1738 which also works in the same frequency. So here is a simple IR Transmitter Tester to check whether the IR Transmitter is emitting 38 KHz frequency or not.
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Hacking a Remote. Application Circuit 3


remote-5We construct different types of Infrared Receiver LED ( Rx) or IR Sensor ( TSOP 1738 ) based circuits. To test, the working of the circuit we have to use an IR Transmitter. Usually we use IC 555 based IR transmitter for this. But the frequency of the IR from the Transmitter should match with that of the Sensor, otherwise the circuit will not respond. Here is a simple solution to test the IR based circuits. Simply Hack a Mini Remote obtained along with low cost FM radio, Toys etc. You have such Remotes in your Junk box. Let us Hack one such Remote to make a Tester.
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IR LED Tester. Application Circuit 2


led-testerIR Rays are invisible to human eye, so it is very difficult to check the working of IR LED. Usually we use a Mobile camera to test IR LED since the pink light from the IR LED becomes visible in digital camera. We can make a simple IR LED tester so that, before using it in the project, we can confirm whether it is good or not. Lot of IR LEDs are also in our Junk box. So we can check all IR LEDs and  discard the damaged ones. The same tester can be used to check all ordinary LEDs, Photo diodes, Silicon and Germanium diodes etc.

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Deterrent Light. Application Circuit 1


deterrent-light-circuit
Install this Deterrent Light in your Home backyard and Porch to thwart the attempt of Burglary. This PIR Motion Sensor based light switches on instantly when it detects a Human movement from a distance of ten meters. The light turns on for 3 minutes and then turns off. It Re triggers again if the movement continues. Relay is used to drive the load, so any kind of lights can be used.
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Car USB Charger using MC 34063. Start Up Project 40


usb-charger2So many types of Car USB chargers are available which step down the 12 volt DC from the Car battery to 5V DC for charging devices like Mobile phone, Tablets, MP3 player etc. These are usually connected to the Lighter socket to get 12V. The low cost chargers do not have a circuit inside but simply providing 12V DC directly. Only a fuse is present in it. This is dangerous because, the Car battery is a high current one which can damage the gadgets. Here is a simple solution for this. We can make a Voltage and Current regulated Car Charger using the IC MC 34063. It is a Step down DC – DC Converter IC with many features. The output from the circuit will be 5 V at 500 mA.

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LED Indicator for Emergency Lamp. Start Up Project 39


charge-indicator-2-aMost of the low cost LED Emergency lamps do not have LED indicators to show charging and load on conditions. This simple circuit solves the problem. It can be hooked in the Emergency lamp. A Green LED lights when the charging is going on and turns off when the charger is disconnected or power fails. It gives a good indication that current is flowing to the battery. A Red LED lights when the load turns on. It also indicates that charging process stopped.
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Laptop Battery Power supply. Start Up Project 38


12ADon’t throw away old Laptop battery; it can be reused for other purposes. I hacked one Laptop battery and salvaged six high efficient Samsung Lithium Ion batteries each rated 3.6V, 4300 mAh. It is worth Rs. 1000. Few days before, I found that, my Laptop is not getting enough back up and shutdown immediately when the charger is removed. So I replaced the battery at the cost of Rs.1200. Due to curiosity, I just opened the case of the old battery pack and found that, the batteries inside can be reused. After testing, I found that only one battery out of the six is damaged. All the other five are in good condition. That damaged battery created the problem in the battery pack and prevented the remaining five batteries from their work. So actually this is happening in our Laptop. If one battery fails, we have to replace the battery pack. If the good batteries are salvaged from the old pack, we can reuse them for many different applications like LED lighting, Mobile charging, making power supply etc. So I spend Rs.1200 for the new battery pack but I salvaged 5 good batteries worth Rs. 1000 from the old battery pack. So my actual expense is only Rs.200. So do not discard the old Laptop battery. Tear it, salvage the individual batteries and reuse. You can save money and can reduce the e-waste.
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Peltier Joule Thief. Start Up Project 37


13AYou know, we can light a 1 watt LED without a battery! Peltier will give “Free Electricity” for that. When we heat the Peltier with flame, hot water or a hot object, it starts to generate current. Its voltage can be around 1.5V when the heat is above 60 degree. But this 1.5V is not sufficient to light even an ordinary LED that requires 1.8V minimum. 1 watt White LED requires 3.6V. Then how? We can add a Joule Thief circuit for that. A Joule Thief circuit is a self oscillating circuit that increases the input voltage as low as 700 mV to 4-5V. So if the Peltier is connected to a Joule Thief and heated, Joule thief will amplify the voltage to light the 1 watt LED. Let us check this.
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Peltier Electricity. Start Up Project 36


12APeltier is the Fantastic device used to make cooling devices. When a current of more than 500 mA passes through the Peltier, its one side cools while the other side turns hot. This is due to the transfer of heat from one side of the Peltier semiconductor to the other. As the current increases above 1 Amps , the cooling effect increases and the temperature of the cold side of Peltier drops below 0 degree. But if we reverse the function of Peltier, it generates electricity. For example, if we heat one side of Peltier above 60 degree using a hot object, hot water or flame, Peltier generates around 1.6V DC and around 350mA current. Let us make one circuit of “Free energy “generation using a Peltier Module. Since the 1.5V from the Peltier is not sufficient for lighting an LED, we have to add a voltage booster to increase the Peltier voltage sufficient to light the LED. If 5 Peltier are serially connected, we can even charge our Mobile phone using a Candle flame.

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Mobile Scanner. Start Up Project 35


2AKeep this Match box size Mobile Scanner in your pocket. It will Scan around you and beeps loudly when a Mobile phone turns active in your vicinity. It can detect the activation of Mobile phone around 2 Meters radius. It beeps during incoming call, outgoing call and when somebody tries to take your Photo. It is an ideal device to detect Mobile phone use in examinations halls, confidential rooms, hospitals etc where Mobile phone is strictly prohibited. Its range can be from 50 cm to 3 meters depending on the type of the active Mobile phone. With  Smart phones, its range is less than 1 meter because there is a mechanism in it to prevent excess radiation. But in ordinary Mobile phones, its range can be up to three meters. Try this nice weekend project.
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USB Wall Socket. Start Up Project 34


15AI have many devices using USB Port for charging. For this, I purchased one USB Hub to connect 4 devices at a time. But the result was disappointing . The devices are not charging and even a Pen drive is not opening in the Hub. Analyzed the reason and found that the USB port of Laptop is not giving sufficient current to the devices for charging. The USB.2.0 Port can give maximum 200 mA current and USB.3.0 can give maximum 400 mA current. Then how all these 4 devices in the Hub charge normally. The 200 mA current from the Laptop port is sharing to all devices, so no one is charging. Moreover, the Laptop gave a warning that, “USB Port over loaded and shutting down”. Remembered that famous saying “Every problem born with its own solution”. Got the remedy. If the current to the USB Hub is increased, all devices will charge normally. But in that case, Laptop is not useful and I have to make a separate power supply. So made a USB Wall socket. It has an AC socket for charging Laptop, and a 5V, 1 Amps SMPS power supply to power the USB hub. Thus the problem solved. The USB Wall socket is fixed on the wall and powered from Mains. SMPS has well AC-DC isolation, so no shock hazard while charging the USB devices. I found the same type of USB Wall socket in the Online shop but its cost is Rs.2500. I made it at the cost of Rs.250. Let us check it.
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Regulated Power Supply Socket. Start Up Project 33


3AWhile constructing circuits on Bread board, sometimes we need a well regulated power supply. For this, we use Voltage Regulator IC. But, its needs some components and take some space in the bread board. For an easy project making, we can make a Permanent Regulated power supply board that can be hooked in the bread board. The power supply board has a 3 pin socket, so any Voltage regulator of the 78XX series can be connected in it. The power supply board has noise and transient filtering capacitors, a buffer capacitor and input and output indicators. So by plugging the power supply board in the bread board, we save time and save much space in the bread board for the circuit assembly. Easy project building makes the circuit perfect.
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Solar Voltage Monitor. Start Up Project 32


1AHow can we confirm the voltage level from the Solar panel ? A 12 Volt Solar panel generates around 20 V DC Open circuit voltage in bright sunlight. The voltage gradually increases from 6 am and peaks in the mid noon between 11 am and 3 pm. Then the voltage from the Solar panel drops to zero around 6 p.m. So we get sufficient voltage for charging the battery for 4-5 hours only in a day. The 12 V battery requires more than 14 V for proper charging. Its current should be above 500 mA. The current rating of the Solar panel is represented in terms of Watts. As a general rule, for each watt, the current will be 80 mA. So a 10 watt Solar panel gives 800 mA current. This depends on the availability of sufficient voltage from the Solar panel. Many factors like corrosion of contacts, loose contacts in connections, dust on the panel etc will affect the current flow from the panel. So how can we monitor the voltage level from the Solar panel. A volt meter can do but we can make a simple LED Meter for this. Its cost is less than Rs.80. It has three LEDs. The Green LED lights, if the voltage from the Solar panel is above 13 V. Yellow LED lights if the voltage is between 9V and 11 V and Red LED lights, if the voltage is below 9V. Remember, the Solar panel is efficient only when the Green LED lights between 11 am and 3 pm.
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Car Jump Starter. Start Up Project 31


9AImagine a situation. We are going for a night drive and stopped the car in a place for some purpose. Then we see that the car is not starting because the battery is flat. It is a totally confusing situation. We will be trapped if this happens in an isolated place. The only way is to leave the car there or wait till morning to purchase a new battery. Don’t worry. Keep a ‘Jump Starter’ always in the car. It will start the car in 5 minutes. Many Jump starters are available in the market but the cost is too high. We can easily make a Jump Starter using a UPS battery. How the Jump starter starts a car if its battery is flat? Actually, the Jump starter has a 12 volt battery inside. When we connect this new 12V battery across the flat car battery, the new battery shares its current to the flat battery. After 5-10 minutes, the terminal voltage of the flat car battery increases to 12.6 volts. It is sufficient to start the car. Jump starter is the improvisation of the conventional technique of connecting the flat battery of one car across the battery of another car using battery clips and wires .That is why the technique is called as “Jumper starting” or simply “Jump starting”. Now light weight Power bank type Jump starters are available with 10,000 to 15000 mAh Lithium Ion battery. These have provisions like Mobile charger, LED light, Distress signal light etc. But the cost is very high around Rs.6000- 10,000. Let us make one Jump Starter with the same provisions like Mobile charger and LED light. The Jump starter can be charged from the Lighter socket of the Car. Its cost is less than Rs.800.
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Flame Sensor. Start Up Project 30


8AWhy going for a costly Fire Alarm system? Some of the Fire alarm systems cost more than Rs.2000. You can make an efficient Fire warning system for just Rs.20. It uses only a few components and is a very efficient Flame sensor. The Thermister based commercial Flame sensors have a drawback because, the alarm sounds only when the Thermister turns hot by the nearby flame. That means, the alarm sounds only after the room is full of fire. But this tiny circuit overrides that drawback. It uses a Photodiode as Fire sensor. It sounds the alarm even if the flame is far away . Interestingly, the spark of the first fire burst can activates the alarm. It can be installed in Home, Commercial shops etc. It will not activate in the ambient light of the room like that of Fluorescent light. It sounds the alarm only when it detects a light similar to a flame, sunlight or incandescent bulb. It is battery operated and in the standby state the current consumption is as low as 5 mA. So Simple, Efficient, and Low cost. Build it.
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Servicing a Maintenance Free Battery. Start Up Project 29


6BI found that my UPS is not giving sufficient back up as expected for 20 minutes. I thought that I have to spend Rs. 800 to replace the battery. But I was not in a hurry. Want to find out the reason. After 5 minutes, the PC shutdowns. Why so? The UPS battery is not giving sufficient power (Ampere Hour) to run the load. The UPS battery is a 12 volt 7 Ah (Ampere hour) Maintenance free Sealed LeadAcid battery (SLA). That means, it is “Maintenance free” and can be used for long time without any attention. But what happens is, the cells dry out due to heat generation. This happens after 6 months to 1 year of use . It is a Lead Acid battery that requires Electrolyte in the cells. So water is necessary inside. It has 6 individual cells giving 2V each. After removing the battery from the UPS, I found that it is very easy to rejuvenate the battery through “Hydration”. The battery will become top, if the dry cells are filled with battery water. Hydrated the battery and charged. Well, now it is giving more than 15 minutes back up. Saved Rs. 800 and reduced an e-waste. You can also rejuvenate the 6V Emergency lamp battery like this. So do it yourself. It is only a 10 minutes job.

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Hacking Mosquito Swatter. Start Up Project 28


1COne Damaged Mosquito Swatter was in my home with full of dust. So, decided to salvage its parts to reuse for other purposes. Just to avoid e –waste and to do some kind of Recycling. Well, it has a good 2.4V Rechargeable Battery and a circuit board. The problem is in its circuit board that  generates high volt AC to burn the Mosquito. But the charger is still working. So decided to use the charger part to make a High power Rechargeable LED Flash light. The Mosquito Swatter generates a high voltage between 400- 1000 volts from the 2.4 V battery. For this, there is an oscillator circuit and an Inverter transformer. The Inverter transformer converts the 2.4 V DC from the battery to around 200V AC. The oscillator circuit makes the AC waveform. The 200 V AC thus produced is then boosted by a Voltage Multiplier comprising some high volt capacitors and diodes. This boosted AC appears in a High volt Capacitor which then passes it to the Nets of the Swatter. The middle net of the Swatter is Positive while the outside nets are Negative. When we press the switch, the High volt capacitor discharges high volt AC to the nets. When the Mosquito passes through the net, it explodes due to high voltage. Even though the AC voltage is very high around 1KV, Current is negligible. Let us see how that Swatter turned into a Rechargeable Flash light.
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Peltier Fridge. Start Up Project 27


OAWow! We can make a cup of cold water in 5 minutes without a Fridge. You need only a Peltier Element, a 12 volt high current battery and a Computer cooling fan. Peltier element is a semiconductor plate like device with Cold and Hot sides. When we provide 12 -18V, 1 amps power to it, one side of the Peltier suddenly cools and the other side turns hot. The cool side temperature goes down below 0 degree and the hot side becomes around 100 degree. So to transfer that much heat, the Peltier should be placed over a large Heat sink. A Computer cooling fan with heat sink is the best choice. Fan will remove the heat from the Peltier and heat sink. At the same time, the cold side turns too cool in minutes. Without a heat sink, the Peltier will be damaged. If we reverse the Polarity (+ and ) of the power supply to Peltier, the sides reverses. That means, cool side becomes hot side and vice versa. Let us make one Peltier Fridge  to get some cold water. Later we can change it as a heater to drink hot water. Peltier costs around Rs.200.
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Anti- Bag Snatching Alarm. Start Up Project 26


3AThwart the attempt of a Bag snatching during journey. Keep this Tiny Alarm in your bag and it will beep loudly when somebody attempts to snatch your bag. It can protect your Laptop bag, Mobile pouch, Luggage etc during the journey. It is essentially a “Vibration Alarm” using ultra sensitive Vibration sensor SW 18020 P. So even a mild shake can activate the alarm. Build it and its cost is just Rs.50.
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Rainbow Display. Start Up Project 25


10AYou can make a beautiful Rainbow display to decorate your show case to give a “Visual Treat “to the visitors. It emits all the colours of the Rainbow (VIBGYOR) one by one and finally flashes rapidly. This is a kind of simple “Mood Lamp” to elevate the mind of viewers. You can fix it in an empty Jam pot so that it appears like a “Rainbow pillar”. A Multi colour Flashing LED and Glue stick can do this Magic. Multicolour LED has three chips to generate Red, Blue and Green (RBG LED) lights. Due to the fast transition of colours from one to another, the colour mixes and gives the Rainbow display. The Glue stick commonly used with the Glue gun transmits this light to its entire length giving a good visual effect. So try it, you need only Rs.25 for this.
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LED Panel Light Analysis. Start Up Project 24


2AWe see lot of LED Panel Lights flooding cool light in commercial buildings, offices, banks etc. I love LED Panel lights because these are high efficient and economic lights. They also not cause any eye strain. Unlike LED Bulbs, the efficiency of LED panel lights is very high and gives the Lumen, K and Power as per the specifications provided because of the use of LED Driver with constant current output .The use of LED driver increases efficiency because the input AC fluctuations will not reflects in the output. So the LED Driver gives constant voltage and current for the LEDs inside the Panel. The result is uniform light throughout the life period of the Lamp as high as 1 lack hours. The only problem in the LED Panel lights is that the Driver may fail if there is a high voltage surge in AC lines that may occur during unexpected lightning or other reasons. But we can easily replace the Driver because it is externally connected. The cost of the Driver is between Rs.50 and Rs.100. Let us analyse one LED Panel light to see its interior and efficiency.
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LED Bulb Analysis. Start Up Project 23


1AOne of my LED Bulbs showed some unusual behaviour during the Peak hours. Unusual dimming, flickering, lighting faintly after switch off etc. It is a 15 watts LED bulb purchased for Rs.300. Checked its specifications. It is 980 Lm and 6500 K . That showed that there is something related to Watts, Lm and the K. The manufactures say that, instead of Watts, look the Lm before purchasing the LED bulb because “Watts” is an obsolete term for the LED bulb. Then what are the Lm and K? Lm is the short form of “Lumen” which is the measure of total amount of light from a source. As a general rule, a 100 watts ordinary bulb gives 1500 lumen light. K is the short form of “Kelvin” which is the measure of “Colour Temperature “of light. For example, the day light has 5000 K and a White LED Bulb gives around 6000 K . As the Colour temperature value increases, the light turns more and more white then turns to blue. Lower values of K shows Yellow to Red light. So as per the specification, the LED bulb should give 980 Lumens and 6500 K light. Ideal its specifications. Then what is happening in it. Analysed thoroughly.
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Low cost LED Driver. Start Up Project 22


2ALED Drivers are used to drive High Power LEDs that require more than 100 mA current. A typical 1 watt LED consumes around 100-300 mA current while a 10 watt LED consumes 600 mA to 1 Amps current. So a resistor to drop the current is not sufficient since it heats up when high current passes. Moreover, the high power LEDs require a Constant Current to give steady brightness. So LED Drivers are used for this purpose. A typical LED driver has two sections. An SMPS converts 220V AC to DC and a Constant Current Generator Circuit provides Constant current to LED. But LED Drivers are costly units and the cost range from Rs. 150- Rs.600. We can make a Low cost LED driver just for Rs.15. Try it.
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Portable Bread Board Power Supply. Start Up Project 21


5AYou can carry this Portable bread board power supply to do electronics work outdoor. Keep this in your bag along with some components so that you can enjoy the holidays with the fun of electronics. This Mini bread board is powered by a 3 volt Lithium cell.  A DC-DC booster Module converts the 3V to 5.1V for the Bread board. You can also enjoy  Music from MP3 player, or even charge your Mobile Phone from the Power supply. So make this three in one power supply. Its cost is Rs.150.
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Pocket Mobile Charger. Start Up Project 20


6ANo wonder, technology is that much advanced. You can charge your Mobile phone from a single Pen cell or even from a watch battery. The Mobile battery needs 5V for charging and the Pen cell has only 1.5 volt. How it is possible? There comes the help of DC-DC Booster Module with USB. It converts a voltage as low as 0.9V (900 mV) to 5.1 Volt. Its input voltage can be between 0.9V to 5V so it provides 5.1-5.2 V out put through the USB socket. So you can connect any USB device that requires 5V. Irrespective of the low input voltage, the output remains constant as 5.1V. The Module that works on 1.5V AA cell provides 200 mA current while two AA cells give 600 mA current. Let us build one Pocket Mobile charger. It is too small and costs only Rs.100
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Hacked LED Flood Light. Start Up Project 19


16AOnce I purchased a 10 watts LED Flood light for Rs. 450. The Ad was so attractive that it is capable of giving light similar to 40 watts Tube light with low current consumption. But the result was disappointing. So hacked it to see the power, current and voltage consumption. It is a 12Volt 10 Watts LED Flood light as mentioned in the pack. The result was very interesting. Nothing matches with theory, specification and real measurements. Generally, the 10 Watt White LED works on 12 V DC and requires 500 mA to 1 Amps current to get full brightness and Flood light effect. It has around 10V Forward voltage. It is usually powered by a high current LED driver that delivers 500 mA to 1 Amps current. Here comes the reality. Many LED flood lights use low current LED drivers or Capacitor power supply. LED Driver is a small SMPS with an output current rating. It must match with the current requirement of the LED. Cheap Capacitor power supply can give only 75 mA current per uF. So we purchase the lights by looking the specifications on the package and not realizing the actual condition of the light. To experiment with that Flood light, opened it to see what is happening inside.Secret revealed.
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Bread Board Power Supply. Start Up Project 18


1AFor a Hobbyist, Bread board is the common solder less circuit board to make the Prototype before assembling the circuit on the Etched PCB. We usually power the Bread board using Battery or DC adapter. It is a good choice to attach a Variable power supply permanently with the Bread board so that we can select any voltage for the circuit. For example some circuit requires 3V or 5V and some other circuits require 9V or 12 V. So by attaching the Variable power supply to the bread board, we can easily select the required voltage for the circuit. The variable power supply described here can provide 1.7 V to 13.75 V by adjusting the Pot. Let us see the Project.
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Magnetic Tools. Start Up Project 17


2AIt is a time consuming job to search small nuts and screws if lost somewhere when we open a gadget. Most of the electronic devices like Mobile phone, Laptop etc use different types of small screws which we can’t get from shops once lost. It is very difficult to see these tiny screws if fall in between the circuit or floor. So this is a simple trick to secure all the screws once unscrewed. Neodymium magnets will help us to secure the screws. Make these Magnetic tools because it is a must for the technician or a project builder.
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Portable Solar Generator. Start Up Project 16


7AWhat will do if you are in a place where AC is not available to power your gadgets ? You can carry this Portable Solar Generator to a Picnic spot where AC is not available. It lights a CFL to provide sufficient light and AC for charging Mobile Phone, Tablet etc and can even play a small CD player. Alternately you can use the unit in home during Power Outage days. It converts the 12 V DC from the battery to 220V AC to light the CFL. It has a bulb holder to fix the CFL and an AC outlet to tap AC for other purposes. It uses a simple 20 Watts CFL Driver board to converts DC to AC. The battery can be charged using a 12 V Solar panel or 12V DC Adapter. The battery used in this unit is 12V 3 Ah (3 Ampere Hour) rechargeable Lead acid battery which can power the CFL many hours.
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Solar Day Light. Start Up Project 15


1Why use lights during day time to waste electricity? Sometimes we need it in some rooms. We can go for a “Green Solution” to harvest Solar energy for lighting an LED light during day time. Just fix a small Solar panel and a Strip LED. It needs no battery  because the solar panel itself acts as a battery. It generates DC voltage when the Photons of the Sunlight energize its semiconductor. So the light remains on throughout day time. You need only a 12V Solar panel and a Strip LED. Connect and relax. It will do its work for 20 years. No circuit is in it and you can easily connect it.
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Portable Mobile Charger. Start Up Project 14


2AWhy going for a costly Power Bank to charge Mobile Phone? Just use a 9V battery and a few components to make a Portable Mobile charger. Its cost is just Rs.25 and if you use a Rechargeable 9V battery, it can be used up to three years. The Mobile phone battery is a high efficient long lasting Lithium Ion battery that has thousands of charge / discharge cycles. It requires 4 -6 volt DC for charging and the charging current can be between 200- 400 mA. We can drop the 9V from the battery to 6 volt using a Voltage regulator. That’s all. Make it and enjoy the satisfaction of a project building.
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Hacked Mobile Battery. Start Up Project 13


4AHere is a “Green Project” for you to reuse the discarded Mobile phone battery. When I purchased a new Mobile phone, the old one became junk. But it has a very good high efficiency and long lasting Lithium Ion battery rated 3.7 V, 1800 mAh. So I decided to reuse the battery for an alternate purpose. A simple power supply with DC- DC Booster capacity and a White LED emergency light. It can be charged from any USB charger or Laptop. Its output can be adjusted from 3.7V to 37 volts. The DC-DC Booster module boosts 3.7V from the Mobile battery up to 37 volts when turning the pot. The Power supply unit is ideal to power all projects that require 3.7 V to 37V. Its emergency light helps to do work in low light conditions. You have a number of Mobile battery in your Junk box. So try this Green project .It is a worth.
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Boost Charger for Mobile Phone Battery. Start Up Project 13.


A1Why allowing Mobile Phone battery for a “Deep Sleep”. Many times we replace the Mobile battery without knowing this Deep sleep property of the battery. Actually the battery is good and we can easily revive the battery from deep sleep just giving a “Shock”. The trick is very simple and you can use the battery again. How the Mobile battery enters into deep sleep? In the Mobile phone battery, there are three pins to connect the battery. One is Positive and the second one is Negative for charging. Then why a third pin? It is known as BSI Pin (Battery Status Indicator). If we are not properly charging or leaving the battery unattended for long time, the Mobile phone will not detect the battery for charging. So by removing the battery and giving a “Boost pulse”, the battery will “Wake up” from sleep and starts charging. Best trick. You need only an USB cable and two pins. You save 350 -500 Rupees. Let us learn the trick.
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Button Torch. Start Up Project 12


2AProbably, this may be the smallest 1 Watt LED Torch working on a Watch battery. It is the “Micro Joule Thief circuit” that is made as compact as possible. It rests on a heat sink of the 1 watt LED and powered by a 1.5V Button Cell. We can make different types of Joule Thief circuits and this experimentation is to make it as small as possible. Try it.
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Free Energy from Computer Fan. Start Up Project 11


6AIt is not a wonder but a real fact that, we can light a 3 V 1 Watt LED without any battery power. You can harvest that much “Free Energy” from a Computer cooling Fan that is resting in the Junk box. A Computer Fan generates around 1.5 Volts with a current of around 80 mA during its full speed rotation when coming close to a Table Fan. By adding a Joule Thief circuit, we can boost this 1.5V to around 4 volts. Well, that is a good idea. When the Computer Fan is close to a Table fan, the forcing wind from the Table Fan starts to rotate the Computer fan in its full speed. The 1.5V thus generating from the Computer fan appears in its connecting wires. Joule Thief takes this voltage and boosts it to 4V. It is sufficient to light a 3 V 1 Watt LED. The Computer Fan used in the project is an original one without any manipulation and not like the one found in some videos with a hidden battery. Let us see the “Free Energy Magic”. You can also name it as “Wind Power Project”.
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Neodymium Magnet Idea 2. Start Up Project 10


15AYour friends will wonder when they see a Computer Fan lighting an LED by generating Free electricity. Do you believe, the Computer Fan generates electricity when it rotates? Definitely very minute voltage of less than 1 volt is generating at full speed. But it is not sufficient to light an LED. So what happens when some Neodymium Magnets are placed on the Computer fan? Nothing happens specially because the Computer fan has 4 Electromagnets that become magnets only when we give 12 volt DC to it. So the Neodymium magnets are simply  resting on the Computer Fan without doing anything. So let us do one Magic to trick your friends. Don’t forget to the reveal the trick after showing it because it is bad to fool others
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Neodymium Magnet Idea 1. Start Up Project 9


NEODYMIUM-MAGNETHow many Neodymium Magnets are resting in your Junk box without any job. Give some job to them. It is fun to use the Neodymium magnets for alternate jobs. You can make a 12 volt power supply and a 6 volt Emergency Mobile Charger with the assistance of Neodymium Magnets. Let us start.
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Piezo Electricity Generator. Start Up Project 8


9AFun! Light an LED briefly by tapping on a Piezo element used in the buzzer. Enjoy the wonder of lighting the LED by your finger tapping on the Piezo element. Piezo electricity is the natural electricity generating from Piezo ceramic material. Piezo ceramic material like Lead Ziconate Titanate has the property to generate a tiny current when its crystals are mechanically disturbed through pressure or heat. At the same time, if a voltage applied to the Piezo ceramic material, it vibrates. This property is used in Piezo buzzers to generate sound.Let us see the Fun
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Mini FM Station for Home. Starter Project 7


9AThis Tiny FM Station can transmit the Songs from an MP3 Player though out the home. Its range is around 100 Meters and operates in the 87.5 MHz frequency. The songs can be heard in a Mobile Phone, FM Radio, Music system etc placed in any room. The unique feature of the FM Transmitter is that it has no Trimmer capacitor . Instead a fixed capacitor is added with the coil to form the Tank circuit. So there is no need for tuning the FM Transmitter. The FM radio will pick its frequency during scanning.
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High Efficient Wireless Electricity Generator. Start Up Project 6


13AHere is a High Efficiency Wireless Electricity Generator project. Usually we make a simple wireless electricity generator to light 1.8 volt Red LED. But here the efficiency of the Wireless Electricity Generator is increased to light 1 Watt White LED Bulb that requires 3.6V. It generates voltage and current even to light a Strip LED. Try it and see the wonder of LED lighting without a battery connection.
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Joule Thief Circuit. Start Up Project 5


J1You can turn on a 3 Volt LED just using 1.5V Battery. It is the Joule thief circuit doing the trick. Joule thief circuit is a self oscillating voltage booster used to drive light loads like LED. The name Joule thief is given to the circuit because; it is stealing the Joule or energy from the battery. That means, it is extracting energy even from an almost dead battery to power a load. Try it. This is one basic circuit you should know as a starter in electronics.
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Solar Power Outlet. Start Up Project 4


17AWhy wasting electricity for charging USB devices including Mobile phone? Sun is there to give power for this. Install a Solar Power Outlet in your home to harvest solar power for charging all USB devices in day time. Its cost is only Rs.500 and you get unlimited day power for more than 25 years to charge all USB devices. The expensive part of the project is Solar Panel. A 12 Volt 5 watts Solar panel costs around Rs.400 because the current rate is around Rs.80 per watt. The remaining components costs only Rs.100. So by spending Rs.500 initially, you can charge all your USB devices at the expense of only 6 Paisa per day . The calculation is for 25 years (50,000 Paisa / 9000 days = 5.5 Paisa). So hurry up to make this project.
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Wireless Electricity Project. Start Up Project 3


8AYou can light an LED without a battery! It is funny to see that, the LED is glowing without power from a battery. The trick is Wireless electricity that is lighting the LED through the mechanism of Induction. Many projects are available in You tube and selected one simple project for you. The step wise procedure is explained here. You can learn some theory along with this. Make it and enjoy.
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PCB Tester. Start Up Project 2


4AAfter assembling the circuit on the Etched PCB or Perf board, we need a PCB tester to troubleshoot the problems if any. We can test the points on the PCB using a Multimeter to confirm whether current is arriving or not. But this handy tester will give an Audio visual indication. It beeps and lights LED when there is current flow in the test points. It can also be used as a Battery tester. If more than 2V is present in the battery, buzzer beeps and LED lights. If the battery is flat, the tester remains silent.It is a good tool, so learn to build this as your start up project.
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LED Tester cum Light source. Start up circuit 1


8AStarting some simple projects for the beginners who are going to start the electronics project building. The first project is a simple LED Tester without any soldering. You can make it in few minutes. With this tester you can check all the LEDs and can also be used as a Light source.
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LED Tube light Repairing. Home Utility Circuit 32


1ALED Tube lights are costly lights but susceptible to instant damage. Since it uses an LED Driver and very sensitive LED Chips, voltage fluctuations, voltage surge, over heating etc can destroy it easily. But all the parts of the LED Tube light will not fail, so that we can easily repair it. The major problem may be the failure of one or more LED chips or the driver. By doing some repair works, we can use the LED Tube light again. I found one of my 12 Watts LED Tube light is not glowing and decided to repair it. Now it is working well. Its expense was just Rs.50 for the driver only. See the step wise method of LED Tube light repairing.
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Remote Tester. Home Utility Circuit 31


2BEvery Home requires a Remote Tester because we are now using a number of Remote controlled Gadgets like TV, Home theater system etc. The Remote handset emits invisible pulsed Infrared rays which controls the functions of gadgets based on the pulsed data arriving. The Infrared Receiver LED (Rx) or a Photo module in the gadget senses this pulsed IR rays and makes the gadgets function accordingly. The Infrared Emitter LED (Tx) in the remote handset is similar to an ordinary LED but emitting Infrared rays in the wavelength around 900 nanometres. This wavelength is beyond our Spectral response, so we can’t see it. So what will do to confirm whether the Remote handset is working or not. If this tester is not available, we have to go to the shop to purchase a new one. Sometimes, it may be due to battery problem. Let us make one tiny Remote tester. It blinks an LED if the Remote is good. Its cost is only Rs.25.
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Posts Editing


IMAGEThe Posts appearing in this blog will be edited in due course to remove the anomalies and errors appeared during the initial posting. Also additional matters will be added to each post. The intimation about the editing will be send to the followers through automatic email. So readers are requested to see the posts again if an error noticed first. Images will also change if an error appeared during drawing or labeling. Such error images will be prematurely deleted from the Media library so that it will not be available in the Net. Thanks for encouraging this blog.