An LCD basically consists of two glass plates with some liquid crystal material between them. The LCD has an electrically controlled light polarising liquid trapped in cells between two transparent polarising sheets. The polarising axes of the two sheets are aligned perpendicular to each other. Each cell in the LCD has electrical contacts that permit an electric field into the liquid present inside the LCD cell.
Confocal microscopy is an imaging technique used to increase image contrast and to reconstruct three-dimensional images by using a pinhole to eliminate out-of-focus light in specimens that are thicker than the focal plane.