A Capacitor stores electric charge. Basically a capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by an insulating material called “dielectric”. When connected to a power source such as battery, the capacitor charges up until the potential difference between its terminals become equal to the e.m.f of the battery.
The capacitance of the capacitor is its ability to store charge and is measured in terms of Farads. The capacitance depends on the area of the plates and the distance between them and also the type of dielectric used.
Capacitance = Q / V
Where Q is the charge and V is the voltage.
Thus the capacitance is the charge divided by voltage.
The important parameters of the capacitor are
Value is marked on the capacitor directly or in colour codes
It indicates how much more or less the actual capacitance of the capacitor
3. Working voltage
It is the maximum voltage the capacitor can withstand before the dielectric breakdown
There is always small leakage current in all capacitors. Ideally this should be zero. But no capacitor is perfect without leakage current. Tantalum capacitor is comparatively better with minimum leakage current
Like resistors, some capacitors are colour coded to indicate value, tolerance, working voltage etc. These colour bands are numbered from the top of the capacitor to the base. The colour coding is similar to Resistor colour coding
Colour coded capacitor
First band – First number of colour code chart
Second band – Second number of colour code chart
Third band – Number of Zeros
Fourth band – Tolerance (Black 20%, White 10 % and Green 5 %)
Fifth band – Appears as body colour. Working voltage (Red 250V, Yellow 400 V)
Colour code of Resistor
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Colour Coded Capacitor