Articles, Components, computer, Design, How components work, Mobilephone, Techniques, Technology

Micro SD (TF) Card How Stuff Works


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Micro SD card (Micro Secure Digital card) is the flash memory card widely used as storage device in Digital camera, Mobile phones, MP3 players etc. The Micro SD format was originally called as T-Flash card before adopted by the SD card association. The Trans Flash (TF) cards and Micro SD cards are identical in format and can be used in devices supporting both cards. But unlike TF card, Micro SD cards have the capability of supporting the NFC ( Near Field Communication) system.
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Computer SMPS How Stuff Works


Switched Mode Power Supply uses a switching regulator to convert electric power efficiently. SMPS transfers electric power from a source ( AC mains) to the load by converting the characteristics of current and voltage. SMPS always provide a well regulated power to the load irrespective of the input variations. SMPS incorporates a Pass transistor that switches very fast typically at 50Hz and 1 MHz between the on and off states to minimize the energy waste. SMPS regulates the output power by varying the on to off time using minimum voltage so that efficiency is very higher compared to the linear power supply.

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Mayans Calendar How it Works


MAYANS-CALENDAR

I am slightly deviating at this moment because everybody in the world is now eagerly discussing about 21st December and the Mayans Calendar. What is this Calendar and what is its importance? Let us see how it works. The Mayans calendar is the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar that is characterized by its non repeating nature. The long count calendar identifies a day by counting the number of days passed since the Mythical creation date corresponds to August 11 BCE 3114 in the Gregorian calendar.Scholars of the Mayan Civilization were expert in Sky watching and they predicted the condition of Sky on Dec 21, 2012. This day will be a Winter Solstice. The Sun is going to exactly overlap with the intersect point of Ecliptic of the Milky Way and Equator.

The Maya were an ancient civilization of the now called Central America and Southern Mexico. During their heyday, the Mayans have developed some calendars to track the sacred days and also to mark the start and end of cyclical periods. They developed one calendar called Long Count and tracked the future long time periods. This calendar starts in 3114 BCE and it marked time in roughly 394 year period known as Baktuns. In one long future cycle, they marked December 21, 2012 as the end of the long cycle. The Mayans wrote that the significant 13th Baktun ends in December 21, 2012. According to Mayans calendar, the Long Count resets to 13.0.0.0.0 on 21.12.2012.
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Computer RAM. How Stuff Works


RAM

Random Access Memory or RAM is the up gradable type of computer memory that can be accessed easily. It is named as Random access memory because any byte can be accessed without touching the preceding byte. SAM or Serial Access Memory is the opposite type in which the memory is arranged in a series of memory cells that can accessed only in a sequential way. RAM is an essential part of computer and Printers. RAM can be classified into DRAM and SRAM. DRAM or Dynamic Random Access Memory which needs to be refreshed thousands of times per second. SRAM or Static Random Access Memory is faster than DRAM so that refreshing in not necessary. More over the SRAM gives the access time as low as 10 nano seconds compared to the 60 nano seconds of DRAM. But due to the high cost of SRAM, DRAM is commonly used in computers. RAM has volatile memory which will wipe off when the power is switched off. Virtual memory is the method of extending the RAM capacity with a part of the Hard drive and Shadow RAM is another kind of RAM in which the contents of the ROM is copied to read-write memory to reduce the access time. RAM disk is the partitioned region of the physical RAM that can act as a faster Hard disk.

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Computer Processor. How Stuff Works


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When you think of purchasing a Computer, the first choice you have to make is, the best processor type because the Processing unit is the most important part of the Computer. The speed of computer, performance, multitasking ability, all depends on the processor. The CPU or the Processor is the Brain of computer allowing to process numeric data and executing the instructions stored in the memory. The Processor operates at the speed of an internal clock that sends pulses called Peaks. The clock speed called cycle is the number of pulses per second which  is represented in Hertz. With each peak of pulse, the processor performs a function based on the instruction. The term Cycles Per Instruction or CPI represents the average number of clock cycles required for the processor to execute an instruction. The latest version of processor is the family of Duo Core in which two processing units are present. Core duo was the first series by the Intel and Core 2 Duo is the next version. The Core 2 brand was introduced on July 27 ,2006 comprising Solo, Duo, Quad and Extreme sub brands.
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Computer Key Board. How Stuff Works


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Keyboard is the essential part of the computer used for the direct human input to the computer. It is a typewriter style device in which the buttons act as electronic switches to provide input to the computer. The common keyboard is the Alphanumeric keyboard with a combination of Alphabetic and Numeric keys. The keys in the keyboard correspond to written symbols, but to produce specific actions, combinations key stroke is necessary. Keyboard produces input for numbers, letters, signs etc. Some keys in the keyboard produce action or function commands. Normally the keyboard is used to type text and numbers in word processor or similar programmes and the interpretation of the keystroke is left to the software. The keystroke is identified by the software in the computer and expresses the data in visible form or as commands. The combination of Ctrl – Alt – Del keystroke opens the windows task manager to close a programme or to shut down the computer. The typical Keyboard consists of numeric keys, Number keys and Character keys and Function keys.

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Electroluminescent display.How Stuff Works


Electroluminescence is the Optical and Electrical phenomenon in which a material emits light when current passes through it. This phenomenon is entirely different from the emission of light from bulbs and other light emitting devices. It is resulting from the radiative recombination of electrons and holes in a semi conductor material. The excited electrons then generate Photons which appear as light. LEDs and Phosphor displays are typical examples of electroluminescent lighting.

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