Human Pheromones


Pheromones are biologically active substances secreted from the body of animals that elicits physiological and behavioral changes in another individual of the same species. Pheromones are ectohormones released from the body to exert influence on another animal of the same species. The word Pheromone is derived from two Greek words Pheran which means to transfer and Horman to excite. Humans, like other animals also release pheromones from the body, but its quantity is less significant since it has no relevance in communication. Human pheromones do not have to be consciously perceived to affect the recipient, but have been shown to affect our behavior when used at subconscious levels.

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Why we are so Happy or Sad?


We have both Pleasure centre and Pain centre in the brain. When there is over stress, the pleasure centre will be in operative so that the normal enjoyable moments will not give any pleasure. In to our brain, millions of messages are passing  daily, of which some are happy messages and others, are sad messages. Brains cells communicate each other through the chemical messengers produced by them to make the body prepared to cope up with the situations. If the messages are happy, then the Endorphin system responsible for the happy mood will be elicited. The sad messages are also carried by the brain messengers which causes mood alteration and  loss feeling. Most nerve centers in the brain are capable of receiving both happy and sad messengers and as long as their input is balanced, everything runs normally.If a person is capable of using these happy messengers wisely, he feels that stress is challenging, fun and enjoyable.Don’t be anxious about the future, and don’t be too much ambitious . A person living in  the real world  will have pastpresent and future. But a person under stress will not have these . We know past, but we don’t know future. So it is better to live in present.

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DNA Chip. How Stuff Works


Electronics is emerging as a new branch called Bionics in combination with biology since there are possibilities to explore the ideas from living organisms. Micro organisms are now considering as the major source for developing DNA chips, Molecular switch etc. This new field is the Synthetic biology.

The DNA chips opened a new era in medical research and medical diagnostics. The DNA chip can provide large quantity of genomic data of microorganisms in a few hours, so that identification of the microbe is very easy. A DNA chip is a” Micro array” of genes attached at fixed locations on a solid support like glass slide or silicon membrane.
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How to Overcome Migraine attack? Solution File 2


Definitely, Migraine is a headache in our life. At any time it can break in Migraine prone individuals with moderate to severe headache in association with many psycho somatic symptoms. The word Migraine came from the Greek word Hemikrania meaning pain on the side of the head. Migraine attack is usually unilateral affecting one half of the head with painful throbbing and associated symptoms like Nausea, Vomiting etc. Photophobia (aversion to light), Phonophobia (irritability to sounds), Visual disturbances, Fatigue etc are also associated with the Migraine attack. Around one third of people with Migraine, perceive an Aura which is a transient visual, motor and sensory disturbance indicating the starting of Migraine attack. As experts say, Migraine is not a disease but a condition triggered by multiple factors which may vary from persons to persons. Let us see the reasons, symptoms and methods to avoid migraine attack.
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Can a Bacterium works as Electronic switch? Fact File 43


Yes it is possible. The Halobacterium salinarium can be used as a Bioswitch.The bacterial protein Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarium has created great interest among scientists to produce bio-logic gates functioning similar to semiconductor logic gates. It is a bacterial species living in the salt marshy lakes of California. These bacteria can survive at very high temperature of 150 degree Fahrenheit or more and in high salt concentration around six times higher than the sea water. These bacteria have a light sensitive protein called Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in their cell membrane. This protein exhibits unusual properties of structural changes when exposed to different wavelengths of light. This property of the Bacteriorhodopsin is exploited to create molecular switches.

The Molecular switches increase the possibility of fast random access and transportability of datas in Multimedia systems. If these are used in computers, appreciable amount of size reduction, fast memory access, mass storage of datas etc can be achieved. The ability of Biomolecule to work as switching devices in computers is a major area of research in the present day with the invention of some bacterial proteins which functions exactly similar to the electronic switches.

Bacteriorhodopsin is the light sensitive, heat stable protein present in Halobacterium salinarium. The bR absorbs different wavelengths of light and changes its structure into different forms. For example when it absorbs Red light, its structure changes into one form and retains the structure. When it absorbs Green light, another structure is formed. Thus by exposing to Red and Green lights, it is possible to change the structure of bR exactly similar to the semiconductor logic gates giving high and low outputs in varying voltages.

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How DNA Chip works? Fact File 42


Electronics is emerging as a new branch called Bionics in combination with biology since there are possibilities to explore the ideas from living organisms. Micro organisms are now considering as the major source for developing DNA chips, Molecular switch etc. This new field is the Synthetic biology.

The DNA chips opened a new era in medical research and medical diagnostics. The DNA chip can provide large quantity of genomic data of microorganisms in a few hours, so that identification of the microbe is very easy. A DNA chip is a” Micro array” of genes attached at fixed locations on a solid support like glass slide or silicon membrane.
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How Animals see more than humans? Fact File 38


The Night time world is never closed for nocturnal animals. Unlike humans, many animals possess adaptations that allow them to see even when the night sky is very dark. Animals have developed amazing adaptations to their environments. Most nocturnal animals have large eyes relative to their body size. This adaptation, along with the ability to dilate their pupil far wider than humans can, maximizes the amount of light entering into the eye.

Not all animals see the world as humans do. For many animals, the world is seen in fuzzy shades of gray, or very “washed out” and pale colors. But some animals can see in total darkness, or even see colors beyond the visual spectrum, that humans have never seen. Still others can use binocular vision to spot prey from thousands of feet away.

Nocturnal mammals have rods in the retina with unique properties that make enhanced night vision possible. The nuclear pattern of their rods changes shortly after birth to become inverted. Inverted rods have heterochromatin in the center of their nuclei and euchromatin and other transcription factors along the border. The outer nuclear layer in nocturnal mammals is thick due to the presence of millions of rods  to process the lower light intensities of a few photons. Light is passed to each nucleus individually.

Many animals have a tissue layer called the Tapetum lucidum at  the back of the eye that reflects light back through the retina. This increases the amount of light entering into the retina. This is found in many nocturnal animals and some deep sea animals. This causes the phenomenon of eye shine in these animals. Tapetum lucidum is absent in human eye.The shining of eyes in Dogs and Cats in vehicle head light is due to this reflective retina.Some animals have Guanine crystals in the eye that shines and reflect light.

1. Dog and Cats – They have night vision and can see moving objects rather than the stationary ones. Their eyes are much more sensitive to movement. Dogs and cats are color blind and see only very pale shades of color but they have better peripheral and night vision.

2. At night , some snakes use Pit Organs to sense infrared rays from the prey. Pit organs can pick up infrared heat signals from warm objects in their surroundings.

3. Bees can see light between wavelengths 300 nm & 650 nm and they can see polarized light.

4. Bats can detect warmth of an animal from about 16 cm away using its “nose-leaf“.
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