How DNA Chip works? Fact File 42


Electronics is emerging as a new branch called Bionics in combination with biology since there are possibilities to explore the ideas from living organisms. Micro organisms are now considering as the major source for developing DNA chips, Molecular switch etc. This new field is the Synthetic biology.

The DNA chips opened a new era in medical research and medical diagnostics. The DNA chip can provide large quantity of genomic data of microorganisms in a few hours, so that identification of the microbe is very easy. A DNA chip is a” Micro array” of genes attached at fixed locations on a solid support like glass slide or silicon membrane.
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How Animals see more than humans? Fact File 38


The Night time world is never closed for nocturnal animals. Unlike humans, many animals possess adaptations that allow them to see even when the night sky is very dark. Animals have developed amazing adaptations to their environments. Most nocturnal animals have large eyes relative to their body size. This adaptation, along with the ability to dilate their pupil far wider than humans can, maximizes the amount of light entering into the eye.

Not all animals see the world as humans do. For many animals, the world is seen in fuzzy shades of gray, or very “washed out” and pale colors. But some animals can see in total darkness, or even see colors beyond the visual spectrum, that humans have never seen. Still others can use binocular vision to spot prey from thousands of feet away.

Nocturnal mammals have rods in the retina with unique properties that make enhanced night vision possible. The nuclear pattern of their rods changes shortly after birth to become inverted. Inverted rods have heterochromatin in the center of their nuclei and euchromatin and other transcription factors along the border. The outer nuclear layer in nocturnal mammals is thick due to the presence of millions of rods  to process the lower light intensities of a few photons. Light is passed to each nucleus individually.

Many animals have a tissue layer called the Tapetum lucidum at  the back of the eye that reflects light back through the retina. This increases the amount of light entering into the retina. This is found in many nocturnal animals and some deep sea animals. This causes the phenomenon of eye shine in these animals. Tapetum lucidum is absent in human eye.The shining of eyes in Dogs and Cats in vehicle head light is due to this reflective retina.Some animals have Guanine crystals in the eye that shines and reflect light.

1. Dog and Cats – They have night vision and can see moving objects rather than the stationary ones. Their eyes are much more sensitive to movement. Dogs and cats are color blind and see only very pale shades of color but they have better peripheral and night vision.

2. At night , some snakes use Pit Organs to sense infrared rays from the prey. Pit organs can pick up infrared heat signals from warm objects in their surroundings.

3. Bees can see light between wavelengths 300 nm & 650 nm and they can see polarized light.

4. Bats can detect warmth of an animal from about 16 cm away using its “nose-leaf“.
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Is it possible to see our energy? Fact File 30


Yes, we can. We have to use Kirlian imaging for that. There is an invisible halo around our body produced by the electromagnetic field called L-Field or Life Field. This L- field appears in measurable quantities and offers great promise in determining the physiological and psychological states of the body. Kirlian imaging is the method of representing energy forms of the body in a visual form. The method rely on the fact that all living organisms emits energy in various forms like heat ,light, sound, chemical energy etc due to the internal metabolism. By using the Kirlian photography, these energy forms can be imaged.

The L- Field of an organism greatly determines its life activities, development etc. The L-Field is greatly influenced by the planets, lunar, solar cycles etc. By reading the L-Field, it is possible to predict ovulation cycle in females, development of internal scars, diagnosis of ailments etc. Studies have revealed that the L-Field reaches its maximum at full moon and changes in L-Field affects the mental and emotional states of human beings. The emotional activity involves mobilization of electrical energy, changes in brain wave etc. So it is easy to determine the emotional state by measuring the L-Field of the body.

The biological basis of Kirlian photography is the Biomagnetism and the L-Field of human body. Biomagnetism refers to the electromagnetic field produced by the living cells during their activities. The Bioelectromagnetism is the generation of an electric current by the action potentials during membrane depolarization and the magnetism thus produced. The living cells use this bioelectricity to store and release energy. Many animals use the Biomagnetism in their daily life. Some animals use the biosensors to detect the magnetic fields during movement. Birds for example have the ability to detect the magnetic field of earth during migration. Fishes like Electric eel and Electric ray emits strong electric field from the body. In human body different forms of Biomagnetism like brain waves, myoelectricity etc exists. Some touch screens use the biomagnetic field from the finger tip to activate the electron flow in the touch screen.

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How Liquid vaporizer expels mosquito? Fact File 28


Liquid repellents are now widely used to repel mosquitoes. The Liquidator mosquito repellent has a graphite rod in the middle and the bottle is filled with the repellent. There is a heater coil in the liquidator. The repellent chemical when comes in to contact with the heated rod turns into fume which disables the sensors of the mosquitoes. The fumes produced by the repellent blocks the chemo sensors of mosquitoes so that they cannot identify human beings.

Liquid mosquito repellents contain chemicals such as ,Prallelthrin , Allethrin etc. Of these the most commonly used one is Pralletrhin. Prallethrin is a pyrethroid chemical used as an insecticide. It is an Yellow to amber viscous liquid. d -trans-Prallethrin is a potent contact insecticide which produces a rapid knock-down, with same chemical and physical properties as Prallethrin.d-trans-Allethrin  is also a  powerful repellent used in mosquito coil and liquid.

These chemicals in the form of vapors block the chemo reception and also the respiratory tracts of the mosquitoes and thus they avoid the hostile situation.The chemical repellents used as mosquito repellents are toxic substances. Even though the concentration of the ingredient is in a safe level, this may cause allergic and respiratory problems in some persons. Precautions are recommended by the manufacturers and these include

1. Avoid inhalation and skin contact.

2. Wash contaminated skin & eyes.

3. Destroy empty containers after use.

4. Keep away from food stuff and animal feeds.

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Why People behave differently? Fact File 17


Not their fault, but the result of evolutionary change to bring variation and viability in the population. Personality of human beings reflects in their behaviour in the society such as interaction with fellow beings, doing daily activities, doing competitive works etc. According to researchers, human beings belong to three classes based on their behaviour. Type A behaviour also called TAB personality is characterized by the competitive attitude and enthusiasm. So most of such personalities are workaholic. They can be referred to as Stress Junkies because they are always concerned about the job. Type B personalities on the other hand are generally patient, relaxed and easy going. The AB personalities show a mixed behaviour and they cannot be clearly categorized as either Type A or Type B personality.

Type A individual are ambitious, aggressive, controlling, highly competitive, impatient, and time conscious persons.Type B personality is almost perfect when compared to Type A personality. They are generally patient, relaxed, easy going, lack overriding, sense of urgency etc. Type B personality is apathetic and are disengaged persons as experts says. They often do jobs silently without showing much stress. Competitive mentality and sense of impatience are less in Type B persons.

AB personality is a hybrid behavior showing both Type A and Type B characteristics. They have mixed profiles and difficult to categorize as Type A or Type B persons. Health psychology studies say that the mental health and physical health are closely related. But still there are controversies among psychologists and researchers to classify personalities based on sample data and merely observing behavior. Some researchers have the opinions that, the personality can change due to learning, social behavior and also due to the changes in the living environment and life styles.
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