Rainbow Display. Start Up Project 25


10AYou can make a beautiful Rainbow display to decorate your show case to give a “Visual Treat “to the visitors. It emits all the colours of the Rainbow (VIBGYOR) one by one and finally flashes rapidly. This is a kind of simple “Mood Lamp” to elevate the mind of viewers. You can fix it in an empty Jam pot so that it appears like a “Rainbow pillar”. A Multi colour Flashing LED and Glue stick can do this Magic. Multicolour LED has three chips to generate Red, Blue and Green (RBG LED) lights. Due to the fast transition of colours from one to another, the colour mixes and gives the Rainbow display. The Glue stick commonly used with the Glue gun transmits this light to its entire length giving a good visual effect. So try it, you need only Rs.25 for this.
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Conserve Power – More Star More energy efficient


Energy Sticker
Energy Star sticker is seen in current hungry appliances like Fridge and Air conditioner. This indicates the energy efficiency of the appliances. Energy star denotes the international standard of energy efficient products implemented in 1992 by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy .It was started in United States of America. The Devices carrying the Energy Star service label generally use 20–30% less energy than required by federal standards. So by comparing the stars, the consumer can choose the model .
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Photon Belt and December 2012 phenomenon


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There are predictions (or rumors) regarding the total blackness for three days from Dec 23 to Dec 25 2012. The predictions claim that the Universe will face a big change and the sun and earth are going to align for the first time. The earth will shift from the present three dimension to zero dimension and return back to the fourth dimension leading to the formation of a brand new world. The predictions also claims that on 21st December, the earth will enter a still ring called Photonic belt an extraordinary phenomenon that occurs once in 11 million years. A kind of showering with light from outer space. But the scientific world totally discarded such predictions and explains that the Photon belt is physically not possible because it requires the gravitational pull of a black hole with light rays being bent around the black hole forming a photon sphere. More over the Photon belt generating star Alcyone is some 440 light years away and the earth is moving away from the Alcyone. Anyway let us stay away from predictions and see the Photon belt phenomenon.

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December 2012 Phenomenon


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Lot of confusion… Mayans calendar, Nibiru Cataclysm, Solar Flare, explanations from scientific world… Why Mayans Calendar ends in 21st December 2012. So many beliefs and arguments. What is the reason for this? The Mayan calendar is the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar that is characterized by its non repeating nature. The long count calendar identifies a day by counting the number of days passed since the Mythical creation date corresponds to August 11 BCE 3114 in the Gregorian calendar. The Maya were an ancient civilization of the now called Central America and Southern Mexico. During their heyday, the Mayans have developed some calendars to track the sacred days and also to mark the start and end of cyclical periods. They developed one calendar called Long Count and tracked the future long time periods. A group of people think that the 21st December marks the end of the existing world and rise of a new world. They link the date with Nibiru cataclysm which is the encounter between the Earth and a large planetary object. What actually signifies December 21st? Let us move from beliefs and Archeology to Astrophysics
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How Animals see more than humans? Fact File 38


The Night time world is never closed for nocturnal animals. Unlike humans, many animals possess adaptations that allow them to see even when the night sky is very dark. Animals have developed amazing adaptations to their environments. Most nocturnal animals have large eyes relative to their body size. This adaptation, along with the ability to dilate their pupil far wider than humans can, maximizes the amount of light entering into the eye.

Not all animals see the world as humans do. For many animals, the world is seen in fuzzy shades of gray, or very “washed out” and pale colors. But some animals can see in total darkness, or even see colors beyond the visual spectrum, that humans have never seen. Still others can use binocular vision to spot prey from thousands of feet away.

Nocturnal mammals have rods in the retina with unique properties that make enhanced night vision possible. The nuclear pattern of their rods changes shortly after birth to become inverted. Inverted rods have heterochromatin in the center of their nuclei and euchromatin and other transcription factors along the border. The outer nuclear layer in nocturnal mammals is thick due to the presence of millions of rods  to process the lower light intensities of a few photons. Light is passed to each nucleus individually.

Many animals have a tissue layer called the Tapetum lucidum at  the back of the eye that reflects light back through the retina. This increases the amount of light entering into the retina. This is found in many nocturnal animals and some deep sea animals. This causes the phenomenon of eye shine in these animals. Tapetum lucidum is absent in human eye.The shining of eyes in Dogs and Cats in vehicle head light is due to this reflective retina.Some animals have Guanine crystals in the eye that shines and reflect light.

1. Dog and Cats – They have night vision and can see moving objects rather than the stationary ones. Their eyes are much more sensitive to movement. Dogs and cats are color blind and see only very pale shades of color but they have better peripheral and night vision.

2. At night , some snakes use Pit Organs to sense infrared rays from the prey. Pit organs can pick up infrared heat signals from warm objects in their surroundings.

3. Bees can see light between wavelengths 300 nm & 650 nm and they can see polarized light.

4. Bats can detect warmth of an animal from about 16 cm away using its “nose-leaf“.
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How Liquid vaporizer expels mosquito? Fact File 28


Liquid repellents are now widely used to repel mosquitoes. The Liquidator mosquito repellent has a graphite rod in the middle and the bottle is filled with the repellent. There is a heater coil in the liquidator. The repellent chemical when comes in to contact with the heated rod turns into fume which disables the sensors of the mosquitoes. The fumes produced by the repellent blocks the chemo sensors of mosquitoes so that they cannot identify human beings.

Liquid mosquito repellents contain chemicals such as ,Prallelthrin , Allethrin etc. Of these the most commonly used one is Pralletrhin. Prallethrin is a pyrethroid chemical used as an insecticide. It is an Yellow to amber viscous liquid. d -trans-Prallethrin is a potent contact insecticide which produces a rapid knock-down, with same chemical and physical properties as Prallethrin.d-trans-Allethrin  is also a  powerful repellent used in mosquito coil and liquid.

These chemicals in the form of vapors block the chemo reception and also the respiratory tracts of the mosquitoes and thus they avoid the hostile situation.The chemical repellents used as mosquito repellents are toxic substances. Even though the concentration of the ingredient is in a safe level, this may cause allergic and respiratory problems in some persons. Precautions are recommended by the manufacturers and these include

1. Avoid inhalation and skin contact.

2. Wash contaminated skin & eyes.

3. Destroy empty containers after use.

4. Keep away from food stuff and animal feeds.

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Why Lightning causes Arc blast in wall sockets? Fact File 12


 

Lightning is the heavy discharge of accumulated charge from clouds into the earth. Its voltage may be as high as 50,000 volts or more. There exists a potential difference between the sky and earth depending on the climatic conditions. In normal sunny days, this potential difference is around 100 volts with negligible current because the air acts as a good insulator. When clouds start to accumulate in the sky, this atmospheric charge increases to 1000 volts or more. If this charge increases further to thousands of volts, sudden discharge of charge takes place which is the lightning strike.The explosion during lightning is the result of Air column breaking.
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