Transformer is used to convert high volt AC to low volt AC (Step down) or low volt AC to high volt AC (Step up). So step-down transformer is generally used to convert 230 Volt AC to low volt AC which can be used to make a DC power supply after rectification and smoothing. But a Non polarized capacitor can act like a transformer to step down the high volt AC to low volt AC. Say, 230 V AC to 40 VAC. Let us see how the capacitor is doing this.
Continue reading “How Capacitor functions as a Transformer? Design Note 42”
An Electronics Hobbyist needs to know the symbols of the electronic components in the Circuit diagram. Before starting the construction of a circuit, it is necessary to study the circuit diagram first. It has a number of symbols with the values marked. There are different symbols for representing the components. So it is necessary to study the symbols generally appearing in circuits.
Continue reading “Understanding Symbols. Design Note 24”
As you know, Capacitors are inevitable parts of an electronic circuit, without which the circuit design is incomplete. Different types of capacitors are used in electronic circuits; each performs a function in the circuit. But basically, all the capacitors act as energy storing and transferring devices. Let us discuss the capacitor types, identification methods and functions.
Continue reading “Understanding Capacitors. Design Note 23”
Let us move to the world of capacitors. You can see a number of capacitors scattered here and there in the circuit board starting from the front end to the last. These capacitors are doing lot of job in the circuit like smoothing, filtering, coupling, de-coupling, buffering etc. You can also see the size and shape difference. The capacitors may be electrolytic or disc but the structure is identical in both having two electrodes separated by a dielectric material. But the functions will be different. For example, a Smoothing capacitor in the power supply section will remove ripples from AC to give a clean DC while a capacitor in the audio circuit acts as the noise filter. So the selection of capacitor and its use in the different parts of the circuit is important. Electrolytic capacitors are polarized so always connect with correct polarity otherwise, it will explode. Disc capacitors are non polarized so they can be connected either way round.
Continue reading “Selection and use of Capacitors Circuit Clinic 2”
You can make this Transistor timer easily for driving a relay for few seconds to few minutes. It is too simple and uses only two transistors and few other passive components. Just press on the switch to start relay and after the time ends, relay will switch off. You can also set the time using a Trimpot.