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Proximity Sensor using HO 4R Sensor. Sensor Circuit 8

You can make a Proximity Sensor using the Infrared Dual Reflective Sensor Module HO 4R. It is a package containing an Infrared LED and a Phototransistor arranged side by side with an opaque partition in between them. In front of the module, there are two small openings, one for emitting IR rays and another for receiving the reflected IR rays. When there is an object in front of the module, IR rays reflects from the object and triggers the Phototransistor and the connected circuit will be activated. Range of the circuit is few centimeters.
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Familiarize Electronic Components Part VII – Photodiode

Photodiode is a type of light detector capable of converting light energy into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Photodiodes are similar to typical semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.

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