MOSFET is Metal Oxide Semi conductor Field Effect Transistor, a very efficient type of switching transistor used in power devices like Inverters, UPS, Power amplifier etc. Its high current capability and fast switching makes it as an ideal choice for these applications. MOSFET is a four terminal device. The terminals are Drain, Source, Gate and the Substrate or Body terminal. The Drain and Source terminals are connected to the heavily doped regions. The Gate terminal is connected top on the oxide layer while the Substrate terminal is connected to the intrinsic semi conductor.
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You can make a Proximity Sensor using the Infrared Dual Reflective Sensor Module HO 4R. It is a package containing an Infrared LED and a Phototransistor arranged side by side with an opaque partition in between them. In front of the module, there are two small openings, one for emitting IR rays and another for receiving the reflected IR rays. When there is an object in front of the module, IR rays reflects from the object and triggers the Phototransistor and the connected circuit will be activated. Range of the circuit is few centimeters.
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