How to Protect Solar Inverter Battery .Design Note 28

One of the main problems in Solar Inverter system is poor charging of Battery during rainy seasons and in cloudy days. The high current Tubular battery requires more than 1 Ampere current for proper charging. To solve this problem, I have designed a” Hybrid Solar charger” and the circuit was published in Electronics for You magazine September 2013 issue. So the charger has two sides. One side gets power from Solar panel and the other side from a Step-down transformer. If the voltage from Solar panel reduces below 9 volts, the charger shifts to AC mode and battery charges via the current from transformer.
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Solar Power for Lighting. Design Note 27

Solar panelYou can use a Solar panel to power electrical appliances directly during day time if the Sunlight is very good, direct and continuous. So you have to install a Solar panel in a well lit area over the roof top in the East- West direction with a slight angle facing the Solar panel to the sky. So when the solar panel gets sunlight, it generates voltage and current which flows through the cables connected to it. You can have two options. The current can be stored in a battery to power the appliances at night through an Inverter or you can directly use the solar power using an Inverter without battery. Solar power is DC voltage and the Inverter converts this DC into AC to power the AC appliances. So let us see the requirements.
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Simple Solar Power System. Design Note 18

Solar based power system is now becoming popular to save energy and money. It is easy to install a simple 100 Watts Solar lighting system for outdoor lighting. No need for constructing the circuits and all necessary units are readily available and anybody can install this. It runs on a 12 volt Car battery and no switching is needed. It turns on the outdoor lamps around 6 p.m and turns off at 6.a.m. The car battery can power the system for minimum 3 years so it is very cost effective. Another advantage is that, the outdoor lights will automatically turns on / off even if the inmates are not in home giving some security. Cost of the system is around Rs.5000 including battery.
The system requires the following:

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Solar Power Supply. Design Note 15

IMAGEYou can make this Solar Power supply as your work bench power supply for testing prototypes. It delivers variable voltage from 1.5 volt to 12 volts with a current up to 300 milli amperes. It can also be used to charge batteries during day time. By using the Pot, it is easy to set the output volt from 1.5 to 12 Volts.
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Dual Mode Inverter Battery Charger

Here is a dual charger for Inverter battery. It can charge the battery via Solar panel as well as from AC power to keep the battery always in top condition. Even though a 12 volt Solar panel gives around 20 volts in full sunlight, it is available only three or four hours in a day. During the remaining hours, the intensity of light is very low and the condition worsens in cloudy and rainy days. This results in incomplete battery charging that ultimately leads to memory effect and permanent damage of the battery. This charger shifts the charging to AC mode when the voltage from solar panel reduces below 12 volts and restores the solar charging when the sunlight is sufficient enough again.

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Simple Solar Charger. Design Trick 13

You can use this Solar charger to charge 12 volt Lead Acid or Tubular battery. It is voltage controlled and charge the battery when the output from Solar panel exceeds 15 volts in bright sunlight. The open circuit voltage of a 12 volt solar panel is around 20 volts in full light and the 12 volt battery requires around 14-15 volts for charging. The circuit also prevents the discharge of battery into the solar panel when the sunlight is low.
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Fact File 1- How does Solar cell works?

Solar cell is a semiconductor device used for harvesting Solar energy to charge battery. It generates current through the excitation of its semiconductor material by the Photon energy of the sunlight.

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