Presenting here three circuits to make efficient Battery chargers. The 12 volt Lead Acid Car battery requires high current for fast charging. If we provide high current, the battery will charge within 1-2 hours fully. Usually a Lead Acid battery takes high current initially, which drops to 500 mA or less after 10-20 minutes. As a rule, it is advisable to charge the battery with a current that is 10 times lesser than the battery capacity. The Car battery is 32 Amps or 45 Amps so it requires 3.2 Ampere and 4.5 Ampere current respectively. So the charger should provide 14 volts with a current of 5 Amperes.
One of the main problems in Solar Inverter system is poor charging of Battery during rainy seasons and in cloudy days. The high current Tubular battery requires more than 1 Ampere current for proper charging. To solve this problem, I have designed a” Hybrid Solar charger” and the circuit was published in Electronics for You magazine September 2013 issue. So the charger has two sides. One side gets power from Solar panel and the other side from a Step-down transformer. If the voltage from Solar panel reduces below 9 volts, the charger shifts to AC mode and battery charges via the current from transformer.
Continue reading “How to Protect Solar Inverter Battery .Design Note 28”
You can use a Solar panel to power electrical appliances directly during day time if the Sunlight is very good, direct and continuous. So you have to install a Solar panel in a well lit area over the roof top in the East- West direction with a slight angle facing the Solar panel to the sky. So when the solar panel gets sunlight, it generates voltage and current which flows through the cables connected to it. You can have two options. The current can be stored in a battery to power the appliances at night through an Inverter or you can directly use the solar power using an Inverter without battery. Solar power is DC voltage and the Inverter converts this DC into AC to power the AC appliances. So let us see the requirements.
Continue reading “Solar Power for Lighting. Design Note 27”
A lead acid battery is composed of series of plates immersed in a solution of Sulphuric acid. Each plate has a Grid on which the active material is attached. In the negative plate, lead oxide is attached as the active material while on the positive plate, pure lead is attached. All the negative plates are connected together. Similarly all the positive plates are also connected together.
Here is a general purpose battery charger that can deliver 3 Ampere current at 12 Volts to charge Lead Acid battery or Tubular battery. The Ampere meter provided in the circuit indicates how much current is flowing into the battery. Two LED indicators are included to show the charging status.
Continue reading “3 Amps Battery Charger.Utility Circuit 2”